Is reading like riding a bike?

 

Ride a bike

I’ve been following the ongoing phonics debate in Australia with interest. Many parents are calling for the introduction of the Phonics Screening Check (PSC) and state Education Ministers are opposing it. Is phonics a panacea?

Introduced in 2012, can we categorically say the PSC has been a success?

Children are still failing to learn to read, even some who ‘pass’ the PSC. Part of the issue seems to me, that schools see the PSC as a hoop to be jumped through, rather than an opportunity to reflect on, and improve, phonics teaching for reading.

Non words are part of the PSC and these are intended to be used to assess decoding ability, using phonics knowledge alone (the look and meaning of the word cannot be used). Assessors for dyslexia use such measures to ascertain whether students have a ‘phonological deficit’. With the explicit teaching of these words in schools, these assessment batteries become less effective.

Many schools teach students to read non words, which is short-sighted as it masks those at risk. Studies also show that the first time a student sees a new word has the biggest impact – how confusing to be taught to read phonetically plausible pseudo-words!

Could the PSC be integrated as a useful screening check for those at risk of dyslexia and reading failure: yes.

Is it used for this purpose in the UK? I think not (too much effort is put into ‘passing’ it). This is about data and not nurturing a love of reading. What message does it give to children about reading?

Children might ‘pass’ the test but still not be ‘readers’. In addition, it is unclear what happens next for those who fail.

There have been numerous studies carried out into reading in the UK and worldwide. In analysing the minutiae of reading: the nuts and bolts, are we somehow missing the Big Picture?

One of the best known signs of dyslexia is reading failure. When analysing statistics, it is important to remember there are many variables: not just the method but the child and the environment; including home, school and importantly, the teacher.

In a large scale study of the effectiveness of intervention schemes, Greg Brooks found that no particular one stood out significantly in terms of impact. However, the teacher is key, see the report here: What works for literacy difficulties.

Teachers need to have an awareness of different strategies when teaching reading but also an understanding of the emotional consequences of reading ‘failure’.

  • Is reading a bit like swimming?

I stumbled across a powerful description of the reading process which likened it to swimming (read the blog here). This analogy stayed with me.

Reading is not just about phonics or whole word strategies, it is not just about practice or whether there is a culture of reading at home. All of these things are factors; however, it seems to me that reading is a lot like the other physical childhood accomplishments which require co-ordination: swimming and cycling; instruction is required, but these are also physical acts, ability to experience success can be affected by attitude, our emotional responses and physical readiness.

Before studying dyslexia, I taught reading to those children who had lost faith in their ability, some may have been dyslexic. One would feel physically sick when he tried to read, another could not sit still. Many had physical and emotional responses to reading, no doubt they had had negative experiences in the past. They had some phonics, they had some ‘whole word’ knowledge but trying to read made them highly anxious, confused, sometimes angry or just plain weary.

It made me think of how we taught our sons to cycle. We took the pedals off the bikes and found a hill; they got balance and a feel for the movement. When they had the balance, we put the pedals back on; they cycled independently – very wobbly at first!

Some children need a similar approach when learning to read; a helping hand and some encouragement, in order to provide a sense that it is all within their grasp. The support needs to be provided and withdrawn subtly, so that the child is barely aware of it and almost feels that they did it ‘on their own.’

The next minute, they’re off! The sheer joy of freedom and independence.

Many years on and, despite the Phonics Screening Check in the UK, some children are still not learning to read. I hope parents in Australia aren’t expecting too much from it. Used to screen for children ‘at risk’ of reading failure and to reflect on teaching practice, the PSC could be a powerful tool.

THINK!

Is the book something they WANT to read, are they slavishly restricted to particular book bands?

Try using picture books, poems, magazines, signs, logos – any form of written word.

To help children on their way, they need to learn to ‘coast’ when reading, through paired and shared activities. Phonics needs to be taught along with enjoyment of reading and other skills, such as inference and prediction. Interventions such as Reading Recovery can feel highly pressured. In fact, any intervention can make the child feel they need ‘fixing’, are defective, make them feel scrutinised.

Remember, fiction is imagining, factual books are connecting ideas. Reading is not just words/data on a page, it changes and illuminates our brain and thinking.

It’s a complicated process but eventually readers take off and they don’t look back!

Phonics is a good start but perhaps not the panacea many would have us believe.

 

a,b,c…easy as??

 

 

Michael Jackson sang that it was easy but for some of us, learning our ‘a,b,c’s’ feels impossible. Moreover, as everyone else is ‘getting it’; how does that feel for a young learner?

One of the key components of any SpLD intervention is the ‘alphabet arc’. Why?

 

alphabet

Something that dyslexics typically do not grasp, without instruction, is that letters have a name and sound – of course they do!

In order to acquire this understanding, dyslexic children need to experience the alphabet, so that it becomes less abstract. This is essentially how dyslexics can thrive in all areas of learning. Their minds are apt to rotate abstract concepts, to take 360 views and see all possibilities. Simply saying this is ‘a’ because this is ‘a’ does not cut it!! They have to experience something; using their senses, which is where the multi-sensory learning comes in.

Cognitive Load Theory and Working Memory limitations are big topics in education. By taking in information via Primary biological information i.e. our senses; this decreases the load on Working Memory. It is more of an evolutionary approach to learning, information that just couldn’t be processed before, gets transferred to Long Term Memory!

Read more here: Evolutionary Upgrade of Cognitive Load Theory.

The alphabet arc is simply, as it says on the tin, alphabet letters arranged in order of the alphabet, in the shape of an arc.

So often, when I’m teaching the alphabet arc, students will say .

‘..but this looks like a…and if you do this, it becomes a…’

Encourage them to close that 3D, spatial thinking down – it is not going to help them in this task!

Look out for:

  • Children spelling by saying letter sounds, instead of using the letter names – well into KS2 and KS3 (because they don’t have automatic recall, or understand the difference).
  • Confusion between letter names and sounds. (see signs of dyslexia)
  • Confusion over orientation of letters, with many reversals.
  • Inability to sequence, or recite the alphabet.
  • Over reliance on phonics for spelling, producing some unusual attempts.
  • No knowledge of the 5 vowels.

Some insight.

A few months ago, my eight year old was sitting on the bed (between there and the bath we have our BEST chats).

He: ‘How do you spell ‘p’?’.

Me: ‘What do you mean?’, …unsure whether he needed the loo. (I always answer a question with a question, as it’s usually just ‘wondering out loud’ and he has the answer).

‘He: The letter: ‘p’, how do you spell it?’

Aaaaah, he didn’t understand the ‘Alphabetic Principle’, the fact that letters have names and sounds.

  • I told him that when you write ‘p’, it is a picture of the sound /p/!  OoooooH!

So, what is the Alphabet Arc anyway?

Using wooden, or plastic letters, the pupil is asked to arrange the alphabet in an arc on the desk or table in front of them, with ‘m,n’ in the middle.

There are many versions of letters available: magnetic, coloured, tactile, plain. It might be easier to start with coloured letters and progress to plain wood. With the plain ones, pupils find it harder to remember letter orientation, therefore there is greater challenge.

How can you help your students acquire this knowledge?

  • Get some solid alphabet letters.
  • Pupil to practice setting them out in an arc, with adult support, or with a classmate (who is very secure with the alphabet).
  • Start with markers: a, ‘m,n’ in the middle and z at the end, in an approximation of where the full arc will go. The idea is that the full alphabet will be within the student’s gaze.
  • Pupil to practice laying them out in sequence, first of all forwards and… when this is easily accomplished…backwards!
  • The children can make games up: close eyes and point to where a letter should be, mix sections up and re-arrange, close eyes and take one away… they will think of their own challenges!
  • The alphabet song is useful to help children remember.
  • Touch each letter and give its name and sound! This will take time and will not happen straight away as the brain is creating new pathways.

Multisensory?

In this way, pupils are using their sense of touch, they are saying the names and sounds and hearing them. Have a mirror handy so that they can see the sounds being made from the lips and teeth and encourage them to feel them too: air, vibrations, movements of the tongue.

Things to look out for and address:

  • Confusion over letter names and sounds e.g. g/j, letter orientation e.g. backwards ‘j’, confusion over letter order.
  • The dreaded SCHWA dun, dun, duuuun. This is when students add vowel sounds onto the end e.g. puh, fuh, luh. Encourage ‘pure’ sounds, tell them to snip the additional sounds off the end! Get some imaginary scissors!! The schwa will affect their ability to blend sounds in decoding (reading) and to separate sounds in words when encoding (spelling).

Look here for my video for Nexus Education:

Alphabet Arc video

Look here for a lesson plan (whole class) on letter names : Whole class alphabet arc

Understanding the power of the dyslexic mind and the alphabet.

In a brilliant exhibition at the Smithsonian, dyslexic graphic designer, Madalyn Hymas, showed how 6 letters can make 48 words. You start to appreciate how confusing the alphabet is for a mind that sees endless possibilities!

Madalyn Hymas

 

*seek specialist advice where possible, however, this relatively simple ‘alphabet arc’ exercise can really help – DON’T DELAY!

  • Get in touch if you have any questions!

See also:

Dyslexia: Finding the elephant in the classroom.

cartoon-elephant-md

In this blog, I aim to help Primary classroom teachers identify the elephants…I mean dyslexic children in their midst. I feel that teachers often have a good instinct but perhaps lack confidence, or are limited by school policy, when it comes to identification of dyslexia.

I am driven by the desire to help to identify and support dyslexic learners because my own son is dyslexic. Dyslexic learners often have low self esteem and can become disenfranchised due to negative experiences in school.

I challenge you to be curious…

I’m told Dyslexia is a ‘predictable’ need but many educators still resist identifying and supporting this, fairly common, learning difference. Why?

Is it fear of cost implications, at a time when budgets are tight?

Perhaps it’s the abstract nature of dyslexia, or the fact that, unlike some other learning differences, dyslexia reflects directly on teaching. Is it fear of labelling a child?

It is suggested that there are, at least, three elephants in every classroom! The analogy of an elephant seems particularly pertinent; I’ve often seen the scientific study of dyslexia likened to blind  men ‘looking’ at an elephant. They each experience a different aspect and are convinced they have the full story. The truth is; it’s different for every individual but there are some common characteristics.

We can ignore dyslexia but it will not go away; what is the cost, both to the mental health and future opportunities for these children? Could educators be doing more to identify and support these learners?

The year 1 phonics screener might give information about these children and the year 1 target of ‘knowledge of letter names’ might give a further clue. Dyslexic children typically struggle to acquire the ‘Alphabetic Principle’ i.e. that letters have names AND sounds. Letters continue to be abstract to them until they ‘discover’ them through multi-sensory learning (feeling the letters, saying the sound, writing the shape).

Observe and listen to your children! Who might be dyslexic?

This isn’t exhaustive but might just get you thinking! Remember, the only expert is the child – get to know them and work with parents to provide mutual support.

**Take a moment to jot down what you think are indicators of dyslexia, under the following headings: Speaking and listening, Writing, Reading, Maths and Sensory differences.

Now read on!

Here are some clues:

  • SPEAKING AND LISTENING

speaking and listening

Be on the Look out for:

Bee on the lookout

  • I might… get confused between groups of letter sounds which originate in the same area: /f/th/v/, k/g, /b/d/p/. I might also have difficulty saying consonant blends e.g. /st/ (links to writing).

*nb a letter within 2 lines e.g. /a/ suggests a sound.

Why? I may have low sensory feedback from these speech sounds (I can’t feel them or ‘hear’ them), this transfers to spelling later. This might be linked to some challenges with coordination too.

  • I might…have trouble remembering letter names and get certain pairs mixed up e.g. c/s, g/j, f/v, u/y.

Why? This might be because these letter names are articulated in the same areas e.g. ‘c’ and ‘s’ are said through the teeth.

  • I might… put my hand up and forget what I want to say, or when put on the spot, not be able to remember/answer. I might call out in class without waiting to be chosen.

Why? I can’t hold the information in my working memory and when under stress, forget what I want to say. I’m desperate to take part and share my awesome ideas which are often complex.

  • I might… have trouble sequencing multi-syllabic words e.g. hippopotamus and following several verbal instructions given at once.

Why? I might have working memory (where information is held) and auditory (processing of sounds) processing difficulties, this leads to sequencing difficulties.

  • I might… have difficulty retaining and understanding abstract language e.g. what a ‘verb’ is.

Why? I often try to support language with my imagination and may visualise meaning, using my ‘mind’s eye’, I don’t have a picture for ‘verb’.

*SEEK ADVICE FROM A SPEECH AND LANGUAGE THERAPIST WHERE POSSIBLE.

  • WRITING

Be on the Look out for:

Bee on the lookout

  • I may not… be able to hold a pencil well and may not remember the shape of the letters I want to write, I may reverse them long after other children stop.

Why? I might have difficulties with co-ordination and fine motor skills. The shape of letters may not have become automatic for me. I may not really understand what letters are i.e. a picture of a sound.

  • I may… miss abstract words out of my sentence, often High Frequency Words (words commonly used in the English Language).

Why? Abstract words cannot be visualised (I don’t have a picture for them to help me) and they drop out of working memory when I’m writing, due to memory overload.

  • I may… have difficulties with layout and punctuation: finger spaces, margins; also commas and full stops.

Why? I might have a difficulty with visual perception (how things appear on the page) and orientation. I might get memory overload, I might not really understand how to use punctuation.

Spelling:

  • I may… spell the same word several different ways ON THE SAME PAGE! Have persistent difficulties with High Frequency Words, make letter omissions in consonant blends (two consonants seamlessly mixed together e.g. /mp/), transposition of letters (mix them up), mix up similar sounds e.g. /b/ and /p/ and make unusual phonetic attempts at spelling.

Why? I can’t tell when a word ‘looks’ wrong and it’s like encountering the word for the first time. I typically struggle to map sounds (phonemes) to their corresponding letter shape (graphemes). My difficulties with speech and language start to transfer to writing. Letters and syllables may be transposed (wrong order) due to working memory difficulties (working memory is where we hold information temporarily).

Sounds in words are indistinct to me and a word can be like a chewing-gum blob of sound in my mouth!

  • READING (DECODING)

reading

This is probably the area most commonly associated with dyslexia. To really understand and spot dyslexia though, one has to look across a child’s cognitive profile and Primary teachers are perfectly positioned to do this.

Be on the look out for:

Bee on the lookout

  • I might… misread letters, especially b/d.

Why? I can’t differentiate between them, my mind might rotate them. I can’t recognise them automatically. I might have a difficulty processing symbolic information (see also maths).

  • I might have difficulties blending sounds; particularly initial consonant blends e.g. /st/ and end blends e.g. /mp/.

Why? I might… struggle to hold the sounds in memory and sequence them.

  • I tend to have difficulties recognising High Frequency Words. I might read ‘was’ correctly and then incorrectly ON THE SAME PAGE! For reasons discussed.
  • I can… have difficulties with  eye tracking (co-ordinating eye movement), I might read across a word and begin reading with the sounds out of sequence or not read to the end of the word correctly.

Why? Decoding/reading is primarily an act of coordination and the eyes jump in saccades (hop) across the page and across words. Dyslexic children seem to lack coordination in this area.

  • MATHS

Math-Girl-

Be on the Look Out for:

Bee on the lookout

  • I can’t… remember what the symbols mean for the main operations.

Why? Because I can’t remember symbolic information without supporting aids e.g. visual or semantic clues (meaning).

  • I can’t… lay information out on the page e.g. writing out a simple sum.

Why? I might have visual and perceptual difficulties.

  • I get… numbers mixed up and might write them back to front, I might not remember the names of numbers.

Why? Numbers are symbols and are abstract which makes it hard for me to remember.

  • I might… get numbers mixed up e.g. twelve and twenty because they begin in the same way: /tw/, I might struggle to remember the counting sequence after ten because the pattern becomes irregular.

Why? I might have difficulties sequencing and remembering abstract information.

*Time, times tables, days of the week  and months of the year can be really tricky for me.

  • SENSORY DIFFICULTIES

This aspect of dyslexia tends to be discussed far less than e.g. reading, where a lot of money has been put into research. Observe the child, talk to them, does any of this fit?

In additional to our main 5 senses, we have our proprioceptive sense (where our body is in space) and vestibular (balance). If you are lucky enough to have an OT in school, talk to them about this.

Bee on the lookout

Be on the look out for:

  • I can’t… concentrate when the classroom is noisy.

Why? I might struggle to filter out background noise.

  • I might… sit on my foot, rock in my chair or droop sleepily over my desk.

Why? I might have difficulties maintaining arousal/concentration and need some kind of external input to help me concentrate. Movement might help me, or standing to learn.

  • I learn… best when I am using all of my senses in learning and when my unique thinking is appreciated!

Why? It’s how I process the world!

SensoryProcessingDisorder

*SEEK ADVICE FROM AN OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST WHERE POSSIBLE.

  • Can you look across these areas and identify signs of dyslexia, did they match the list you wrote at the beginning?
  • There’s a great deal of information out there, read broadly, apply and reach your own conclusions!

For help with spelling: Memory and spelling

For suggestions to help with learning the alphabet see: Alphabet Arc

How might you initiate a discussion around dyslexia in your school? read here: Let’s chat: dyslexia

Suggested Further Reading:

BDA Read BDA’s Indicators for Primary.

Day-to-Day Dyslexia in the Classroom, Joy Pollack, Elisabeth Waller and Rody Politt, (2004, RoutledgeFalmer).

Dyslexia and Mathematics, T. R. Miles and Elaine Miles, (2004, RoutledgeFalmer)

Dyslexia: A Practioner’s Handbook, Gavin Read, (2016, Wiley and Sons)

Removing Dyslexia as a Barrier to Achievement, Neil McKay, (2012, SEN marketing)

Rose Report Read Rose Report

Sensational Kids, Lucy Jane Miller, (2006, Penguin).

Teaching Literacy to Learners with Dyslexia: A Multisensory Approach, Kathleen Kelly & Sylvia Phillips (2011, Sage).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

thinkpix

visual think

 

As a dyslexia teacher and mum, my aim is to support those with dyslexia. I am particularly interested in helping class teachers to get a better understanding of this rather abstract and complex difference. Sadly, dyslexic strengths often only appear after school life has ended. My dream would be for dyslexic children to thrive in school, both emotionally and academically. They can learn, if they can do it differently.

I’ve used the name ‘thinkpix’ because when my eldest son (now 10) was around 5 years old, he told me ‘I have a picture for everything’. I read ‘The Gift of Dyslexia’ shortly after and everything fell into place; why he was struggling at school, had been late to talk (3 years), could never remember nursery rhymes and had never been interested in the alphabet!

My first blog is on identifying dyslexia in the classroom. I will look at how to support these children in future blogs as well as other living and learning posts!

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