On the 31/1/19 there will be a discussion about dyslexia at the IoE involving some eminent people in the field: ‘Dyslexia diagnosis, scientific understandings and belief in a flat earth.’
This follows a statement last year from Warwickshire and Staffordshire County Council that a dyslexia diagnosis is ‘scientifically questionable’, with other schools now saying that dyslexia ‘doesn’t exist’…some schools have been saying this for a while.
Where do we go from here?
Perhaps the answer lies with greater teacher agency and autonomy. Too long undermined, perhaps it’s time that teachers be acknowledged as the experts and given the training, status and permission to act.
This is why I so strongly support Alison Peacock and her work with the Chartered College; raising the status of the profession and giving teachers a voice allowing them to have high expectations for all pupils.
I feel there needs to be a focus on how accountability measures are impacting on teachers’ daily practice. What are teachers feeling and experiencing and how can they be better supported moving forwards? It is clear that to better support dyslexia:
I am driven by a desire to experience, to know and understand the plight faced by teachers that can result in dyslexic children being not just overlooked in classrooms, but sometimes treated in a way which undermines their human rights.
My journey is fuelled by hope, not despair.
Rebecca Solnit explains the nature of hope, which is:
‘to bet on the future, on your desires, on the possibility that an open heart and uncertainty is better than gloom and safety’ (2016, p.4).
Whilst there are many creative approaches to teaching, spelling has not benefited from this in the past.
How has spelling been taught historically in your school?
Typically, spelling is not taught at all but delivered as lists, sent home to ‘look, cover, write and check’ and to be tested at the end of the week. Students who cannot spell exciting vocabulary will not use it in their writing. Difficulties with spelling will slow down the writing process and increase the cognitive load faced by struggling writers who often have amazing ideas.
Why do we need to analyse spelling errors?
Whilst a student may get 10/10 in a weekly spelling test, their free writing may tell a different story.
In starting to analyse their spelling errors, you can encourage them to monitor their own spelling mistakes.
The aim is confident spellers, with a repertoire of strategies, who use a range of ambitious vocabulary.
This can be a better approach for struggling spellers who may make little progress on phonics-based intervention programmes.
A note on High Frequency or ‘tricky’ words and why children can’t spell them:
From Reception, children are taught that certain words are tricky, almost as if there were no pattern or link to phonics at all, nonsensical even difficult. These are described as ‘look, say’ words and flash cards are used, even where these words follow phonic patterns , such as the split digraph word ‘like’.
A bit g favourite is the mnemonic eg big elephants can always understand small elephants (because) but this method requires much repetition and actually is very taxing for working memory.
How much more interesting and helpful is it to teach that because is from French ‘par cause de’:
Children tend to spell these words incorrectly from the start (because they are not encouraged to analyse them) and are allowed to build a motor memory of these words until by KS2 these mispellings become deeply entrenched.
Types of spelling error:
Semantics and homophones e.g. there, their, they’re.
High Frequency Words: whent, becuse
Orthographic/morphological e.g. slipt for slipped, happyness (affixes)
Reasonable phonic alternatives e.g. teecher, sed
Transposition (mixing up letters) or articulation e.g. callde, moth for month.
Letter reversals and directionality e.g. bad for dad, was for saw.
Additions e.g. frome.
Omissions e.g. mouten – mountain (see also articulation).
In starting to analyse your students’ spellings and helping them to analyse and manage their spelling, you are both building metacognitive strategies. Without this, students feel that spelling is random and arbitrary.
Contact me for whole school spelling training.
Assessment creates a lot of debate, with strong opposition to the testing of Reception children and one headline declaring: ‘Testing has become like crack cocaine to the government’. Is there a difference between an assessment and a test?
The word ‘assess’ turned up in English about 550 years ago. It came to English from Old French and before that, from Latin. The English association between ‘tax’ and the word ‘assess’ reflects the meaning that the late Latin parent word held. But this Latin word was built on earlier roots.
Believe it or not the words size, assize, and assess all run back to a word root meaning “sit.”
A test or quiz measures what someone knows, or has learned. An assessment is the process of documenting knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs, usually in measurable terms. The goal of assessment is to make improvements, as opposed to simply being judged. Assessment tools or batteries have been standardised on large samples to establish an average performance, this creates a bell-shaped curve of distribution of scores, with average in the centre and less common scores at either end. Many practitioners are now exploring dynamic assessment which probes what an individual might be capable of with a little support.
I like the etymology of the word ‘assess’, my job as an assessor is ‘to sit’, I am not fond of online assessments for this reason. Sitting is not done passively. Instead, I am trying to get inside the experience of the person being assessed. For me, assessment is so much more than administering a list of test batteries. I am weaving a tapestry, what are the threads? Where is the individual performing, compared to an average, what are their underlying abilities and what are their barriers to achievement? What clues can I get by drawing them out in conversation and by close observation: how they sit, hold the pen, move and think. What errors are they making and what does it tell us? What were their thought processes.
When carrying out an assessment, it is important to consider the story, the individual’s narrative. This helps us to begin to understand their experience of learning. Without conducting assessments, one can only guess from outward behaviours. Often, behaviours are misleading and assumptions are inaccurate.
A good example might be a pupil with poor handwriting who cannot produce enough work. How might this look to a teacher? Chances are, this pupil is perceived as someone who needs to make more effort, who perhaps is inherently lazy, disorganised and underachieving as a result.
By assessing processing speed, working memory and handwriting speed, one can appreciate the actual challenges the pupil might face and begin to support them better. Crucially, the Equality Act protects such individuals, ensuring that where certain scores are below average (i.e. below Standard Score 85), access arrangements are essential. Access arrangements exist so that the exams are fair for all pupils, without changing the exam itself.
Before choosing any test battery, it’s important to consider:
Moreover, an assessment may also reveal strengths such as comprehension, visual memory, non-verbal reasoning or receptive vocabulary. These potential strengths can be used to support the learner.
Think carefully because assessment materials are a substantial investment!
I love doing assessments, I enjoy looking for the fine detail, being a learning detective. They are not about making judgements but about empowering the individual and helping them to understand their challenges and strengths. Yes, this leads to the current Holy Grail: an understanding of how one learns, metacognition. Through recommendations, one can provide a way forward and offer new strategies.
Invest in some assessment materials today.
10 ideas for using visuals with dyslexic learners:
2. To provide narrative which helps information to stick.
eg It is crucial that students know all the vowels and that they make 2 sounds: long and short/ weak and strong. Vowels are integral to many spelling patterns and create syllables.
3. Try integrating pictures with phonic sounds – especially the tricky digraphs and trigraphs. A visual as well as auditory clue means the sound is better remembered.
4. Dreaded homophones – visual clues can help!
5. Sentence types can seem very abstract, provide a visual to aide recall and make the concept more concrete!
6. Students may be able to segment syllables but not be able to sequence and recall multisyllabic words, picturing or drawing the word can help…any ideas?
Abominable of course!
7. Try mindmapping prefixes or suffixes:
8. Make a word itself into a picture, teach spelling patterns too eg in cried, the y cry changes to i and past tense ‘ed’ is added:
9. To teach points of grammar: which is the object and which the subject here, is there more than one subject?
10. Visuals are not just for literacy but work well in maths too; in explaining abstract language and aiding memory. What is the ‘operation’?
Play around with visuals and have fun. You don’t have to be great at drawing, encouraging the child to draw will help them to build supporting strategies too.
As a Key Stage Two teacher, it can feel like dyslexia is immutable i.e. unchangeable. This is especially true when the child has not been given any strategies, it is much easier to support dyslexia in EYFS or Key Stage One because their needs are more in line with teaching.
It might feel like there is such a massive mountain to climb, that you do not know where to start. By Key Stage Two, those incorrect spelling patterns have become embedded and dyslexic children tend only to use phonics as a strategy, unless taught otherwise.
My belief is always that a class teacher can have a powerful impact. Start by focusing on something small and persist. The key is to involve the student in metacognition: thinking about thinking – why did you choose that particular spelling? What were you thinking when…
They will need to practice the same procedural skills: handwriting, spelling (see Nicolson and Fawcett) for longer than other children; give them lots of praise and see them shine.
Spelling, I feel, is the key to writing for dyslexic children. Studies show that whilst they may have a broad vocabulary and good understanding, they will limit writing to what they can spell (or what they think they can spell!).
If letter formation is very poor and productivity unusually low, it could be that letter formation is not automatic ie has not gone into long term memory. If this is the case, see the witing 8 demo:
Top Ten Tips:
1) Start by focusing on High Frequency Words, use the words which are active in their writing, rather than working systematically through the lists. Where there are phonics patterns, teach those. Otherwise, make up stories and draw pictures e.g. would, could and should – o, u, lucky, duck or even better ask the child to make one up (o, u, lovely, dancer).
Have the child engage with these target words and self-check their work during editing time.
2) Look for patterns/analyse spelling errors: do they transpose letters e.g.alos for also (I think they get scrambled in working memory, or perhaps a weakness in visual recall). Do they confuse particular sounds? /f/ and /th/ or /c/ and /g/ if so, draw attention to these sounds by showing the child in a mirror or by feeling the throat. Do they miss syllables out? Again have them feel the movement of the jaw, a vowel creates a syllable. Syllable division shown here, the division is made where the vowel is long (open):
3) Teach spelling ‘rules’ – whilst there are often exceptions, students are relieved to find that there are general rules which work MOST of the time! Teach the split digraph rule properly – one of the biggest mistakes I see is ‘e’ on words where there shouldn’t be one but NEVER on the split digraph words!
4) As with vocabulary, teach affixes and root words, also etymology (history of words), spelling is about meaning more than sounds.
5) Try and give them regular dictation so that a layer of processing is removed – this way they don’t have to compose writing, but have to remember it (the phonological loop) and then focus on spelling.
6) Give them cloze sentences where they only have to insert a word and then perhaps copy the sentence out.
7) Give them writing frames, support for writing: again this reduces the amount of processing and allows them to absorb the language and structure of sentences.
8) Give them plenty of oral rehearsal opportunities – with one counter for every word – or record the sentence and play it back; use props or draw a picture to aid memory retention.
9) Have them write less and give them more editing time.
10) Interleave spelling with vocabulary and handwriting practice.
The teaching of grammar and spelling is best done in a systematic, cumulative way, programmes like ‘Conquering Dyslexia’, (Kathleen Kelly and Sylvia Phillips) can provide an excellent framework for this.
Plus, there are fabulous resources to download from their website to accompany this.
See my previous posts on spelling:
Dyscalculia is a term used to describe extreme, specific difficulties in maths. Many of these difficulties may be found in a dyslexic profile.
‘Dyscalculia is a condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetic skills. Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers, and have problems learning number facts and procedures. (DfES, 2001)
In Steve Chinn’s book, he suggests that many children ‘give up’ on maths around the age of 7 and lists the following factors:
Haylock and Cockburn (2013) feel that much can be done in the early stages of teaching mathematics and that some difficulties are created by teachers, who themselves were taught ‘by drill’. They call for teachers to have a thorough understanding of the basic mathematical concepts and principals. This will, in turn, enable them to help children construct that understanding for themselves.
Butterworth and Yeo (2004:1 ) make the point that there are many reasons for underachievement in mathematics, including ‘inappropriate teaching, behavioural problems, anxiety and missing lessons’ which makes ‘identifying a special condition difficult’.
It is difficult for researchers to make conclusions about the cognitive processes involved (Ansari and Bugden, 2015). Just as neuroscience (Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Electroencephalography, EEG) is being employed to understand literacy development, so too is it being employed to further understanding of Developmental Dyscalculia: its diagnosis, intervention and treatment (Ansari and Bugden, 2014).
As with literacy and dyslexia, multiple-deficit models of dyscalculia can explain the heterogeneity of the difficulty and the range of approaches required to compensate (Landerl, 2015). Butterworth (2003) has developed a ‘Dyscalculia Screener’ (2003), identifying dyscalculic learners between 6-14+ years. It aims to assess prerequisite skills that underlie efficiency in maths and recommends intervention strategies.
The Dyscalculia screener tests elements of numerosity (subsitising), within a time constraint. Pupils are shown collections of dots and asked to quickly and accurately report how many they see. This ability, Butterworth argues, distinguishes those with dyscalculia from others.
Chinn (2012) suggests using a range of tests and informal diagnostic activities that probe the way a child is thinking; arriving at the underlying misconception. The WRAT4 can provide a comparison between literacy and maths. The MALT assessment (2009) gives useful information about answers. Kelly, Phillips and Symes (2013) provide a useful dyscalculia checklist.
If many children ‘give up’ age 7, this resonates with early work from Buswell and Judd (1925) who found that the first time you learn a new idea, it creates a dominant learning experience. Chinn (1998) lists the following areas of potential difficulty for those with dyslcalculia, all of which might apply to a dyslexic profile:
If instructions or information given is too demanding for the child, they will have memory overload and will not retain the information.
Working memory is especially important in maths, as numbers have to be held in memory during mental arithmetic. There are usually steps involved too and these may also overburden working memory so that information is lost.
Consistency is reassuring and it makes it possible for pupils to be relaxed and deal with new experiences, assimilating them. Vocabulary and procedures need to be consistent so that teaching and learning is effective and explained carefully.
Dyslexic children and those with dyscalculia are usually slow to process auditory information and to work through steps as working memory is generally weak. Having to do maths calculations quickly can create anxiety, which in turn reduces working memory capacity and also affects long term memory
Committing basic facts to long-term memory, in particular times-table facts, is extremely challenging. Time is not put aside in the curriculum for this. It is demoralising for children who cannot master them in the way their peers can.
Eg The English language does not offer consistency for two digit numbers, the numbers eleven and twelve do not fit the rest of the pattern. In fractions, the pattern of a quarter and a half does not fit with a fifth and an eighth; maths vocabulary is often abstract and hard for the learner to retain.
Telling the time, using an analogue clock, can be particularly challenging for dyslexic children: the language, number knowledge and processing involved is all too much! Much of being a successful learner at Primary level is to do with memory functioning. Cognitive weaknesses associated with dyslexia, such as short term, working and long term memory; speed of processing, sequencing and difficulties with attention and concentration are all likely to impact on maths. The Baddeley model of working memory (2000) shows short-term memory (STM) as split between visual semantics (Visuospatial sketchpad) and the verbal STM (Phonological loop). These two areas are not directly connected but interact with the episodic buffer, which transfers information to the long-term memory.
It would appear that in dyslexia, certain information does not get readily stored in the long-term memory (LTM). Auditory information is held in the store where it rapidly decays. In dyslexia, this is thought to be impaired, as tested using Nonword Repetition (Roodenrys and Stokes, 2001). Maths auditory input can be lengthy and dyslexic learners may struggle to retain instructions and the steps required for task completion.
Chinn, (2012) suggests that visual representations of number, which create a number sense, and the use of concrete materials (numicon, dienes, Cuisenaire) helps to engage struggling learners in maths. Visualisation is a key concept when teaching maths to pupils with a dyslexic and dyslcalculic profile. Ronit Bird (2009) also suggests activities that involve concrete manipulatives and visualisation. Dominoes and playing cards can be used to develop a number sense. Maths language can be practiced and supported through a number pack, akin to the spelling and reading packs used in literacy programmes. Sharma (2016) recommends using Cuisenaire rods to support learners, these are especially good for fractions.
Chinn (1998) adds spatial awareness as a potential problem for dyslexic learners. Importantly, spatial awareness is needed for the layout of simple work on paper, such as the column method but also in drawing and interpreting graphs, charts and other symbolic information. It may cause problems in geometry, algebra and copying from the board e.g. writing down the wrong question number. It can be helpful to plot the space out with dots before beginning the task.
As suggested by Butterworth and Yeo (2004), anxiety is a huge factor in maths. ‘Number Anxiety was first introduced as a concept by Dreger and Aiken (1957). Anxiety can also be an issue in dyslexia and the acquisition of literacy skills, (Carroll et al., 2005; Carroll and Iles, 2006). Worry and anxiety are associated with the need to be prepared; fear and panic are primitive responses to a real or perceived defined threat. This will be exacerbated by having to do calculations quickly. Overall, studies suggest that attitudes to mathematics tend to deteriorate with age during childhood and adolescence (Wigfield and Meece, 1988; Ma and Kishor, 1997).
Young, Wu, and Menon (2012), in a math anxiety study, found brain activation in 7 to 9 year olds was in the right amygdala, a site previously tied to the learned fear response in adults. They also found that math anxiety was associated with reduced activity in posterior parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – regions involved in mathematical reasoning. Mathematics anxiety has been defined as:
“a feeling of tension and anxiety that interferes with the manipulation of numbers and the solving of mathematical problems in … ordinary life and academic situations” (Richardson and Suinn, 1972).
It is, of course, unclear where math’s difficulties create anxiety or vice versa, a self-perpetuating cycle. Moreover, there seems to be two aspects: affective and cognitive. Cognitive might be worry about performance and affective is the emotional response: nervousness and tension – exacerbated by exam situations (Liebert and Morris, 1967). Competence in numeracy needs to be addressed because difficulties in maths impacts negatively in life. Dyscalculia refers to severe difficulties with number and people with dyscalculia may struggle with: handling money, budgeting, time-telling (including recording times, dates and appointments), using pin numbers, remembering personal information (like date of birth) addresses and post codes, travelling and directions. Difficulties with these areas can prove incredibly stressful.
Within maths, if there is not a secure foundation, it is necessary to define the key concepts and go back, before moving forwards. There are many books available offering games and puzzles, which provide opportunities to overlearn, Bird (2011) and apps such as Doodlemaths are very successful for the same reason. Bryant, Bryant, Shin and Pfannenstiel (2015) highlight, ‘Providing a cumulative review of previous concepts’, as an example of a practice designed to deliver explicit and systematic instruction. It is important to analyse the mistakes student make in maths and look for patterns, ask questions and address misconceptions. This is all part of good practice within the ‘plan, do, review cycle’.
Whilst auditory processing is a weakness in dyslexia, there is evidence to show that the visuospatial sketchpad is not impaired and may even be a strength (see meta-analysis by Swanson, 2006). This is important information as it suggests that visuals can be used in interventions to boost confidence and improve outcomes; using areas of strength to support weaker areas, i.e. Hebb’s law: “Neurons that fire together wire together”. When taught simultaneously with the strong one, the weaker modality becomes strengthened.
There has been greater research into literacy difficulties, than into dyscalculia and difficulties with maths but with a recent emphasis on achievement within maths nationally, comes a new focus. The new national curriculum (2014) whilst more rigorous, does not address instructional practices. By applying what works within literacy, maths may become easier to access for many students.
The methods for improving literacy for pupils with Specific Learning Difficulties are well established:
(Rose, 2009, Singleton, 2009)
Apart from ‘phonics based’ all of the above criteria can be applied to mathematics. There are fewer specialist teachers for dyscalculia and fewer specialist programmes. Chinn (2017) suggests that adjustments to lessons be based on the following four principles:
Reid (2016) makes the point that the reading aspect of maths can be a real challenge for children, as dyslexia often overlaps with dyscalculia and maths difficulties. The text should be simplified and children with dyscalculia will need the vocabulary explaining more often and rephrasing. Often, it is the simple, abstract words such as ‘more’ or ‘less’, ‘before’ and ‘after’, which create ambiguity. Where there is more language, and complicated syntax e.g. in a word problem; dyscalculic children may benefit from using highlighters and drawing pictures.
Professor Mahesh Sharma (2015), suggests the following procedure:
Hattie (2009) points out in his meta-analysis search, that the most successful mathematics programmes are strategy-based, involving working out an answer. He recommends a formula, encompassing all learning, to D.I.E for: Diagnose what they do/don’t know, Intervene, Evaluate (reflect). Maths is developmental; it relies on there being solid foundations in earlier stages upon which to build. Areas such as number bonds may not be secure and will prevent entry into more advanced maths. One cannot assume knowledge, it is important to personalise learning and get to know how the student is thinking.
In his 2012 book, Chinn has a chapter on ‘Cognition and Meta-cognition in Maths. Meta-cognition is becoming increasingly important as a concept in all areas of learning and is taught in many literacy programmes ‘thinking about how you are thinking’. There seems to be a worldwide consensus that flexible thinking and meta-cognition are more important than the use of formulas in maths. The use of formulas (or algorithms) is successful for many students who can remember and apply them without understanding what they are doing e.g. for dividing by a fraction: ‘turn upside down and multiply’. For students who don’t remember (dyslexic/dyscalculic), and who need the meaning to help them, this is not successful. They need to fully understand the process in order to apply it successfully the next time. The positive here is that they cannot ‘ape’ understanding. Sometimes, a small misconception is hindering them, when addressed, they take flight! Singapore, with their Singapore method that is creating an impact in the UK, overtly encourages meta-cognition.
From an American study into cognitive style (Bath, Chinn and Knox, 1986), Chinn formed a hypothesis that there are 2 distinct learning styles in maths. The team labelled them ‘grasshopper’ and ‘inchworms’. Grasshoppers are flexible and intuitive, Inchworms are formulaic; slow and steady. Chinn makes the point that often mathematics requires both approaches in the solving of one maths question. He suggests that if there is a non-judgemental approach to maths in the classroom; with emphasis on the method rather than the outcome, it will lead to a positive learning environment, where flexibility is allowed to grow.
Self-esteem is connected to being a successful and independent learner (Burden, 2005). If a learner hasn’t understood a concept, it is important to try and understand how they are thinking. Just as in literacy, the relationship between teacher and pupil is integral:
Building strong and trusting relationships between teacher and child is an essential prerequisite for accelerated learning (Brooks, 2007: 31).
In summary, dyscalculia is a relatively new area of learning difficulty. Following a new focus on Maths, with initiatives like Numbers Count, the DfE recently revealed that Maths is now the most popular A Level, which suggests that there have been improvements. However, work to ensure that all pupils leave school with the necessary skills in Maths to be successful in managing their finances and daily activities, is continuing. This can only be done by finding out how pupils are thinking, offering them visuals, concrete materials and alternative methods i.e. flexibility. In this way, it is hoped that anxiety within Maths can also be properly addressed.
Ansari, D. and Bugden, S. (2016) Probing the nature of deficits in the ‘Approximate Number System’ in Children with Developmental Dyslexia). Developmental Science, vol 19, issue 5.
Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in cognitive sciences, 4 (11), 417-423.
Bath, J. B. Chinn, S. J. and Knox, D. E. (1986) The Test of Cognitive Style in Mathematics. East Aurora, NY, Slosson.
Brooks, G., (2007). What works for pupils with literacy difficulties? London: DCSF
Bryant, D. P., Bryant, B. R. Shin, M. and Pfannenstiel, K. H. (2015) Learning Disabilities: Mathematics Characteristics and Learning Exemplars in Chinn, S. International Handbook for dyscalculia and Mathematical Learning Difficulties. London and New York. Routledge.
Burden (2005) Dyslexia and Self-Concept seeking a dyslexic identity. London: Whurr.
Buswell, G.T. and Judd, C. M. (1925) Summary of educational investigations relating to arithmetic. Supplementary Educational Monographs. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.
Butterworth (2003) Dyscalculia Screener, Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
Butterworth, B. and Yeo, D. (2004) Dyscalculia Guidance, London: NferNelson.
Carroll, J. M., Maughan, B., Goodman, R., and Meltzer, H. (2005). Literacy difficulties and psychiatric disorders: evidence for comorbidity. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 46, 524–532.
Carroll, J. M., and Iles, J. E. (2006). An assessment of anxiety levels in dyslexic students in higher education. Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 76, 651–662.
Chinn, S and Ashcroft, R (1998) Mathematics for Dyslexics: A Teaching Handbook. London: Whurr.
Chinn, Steve (2012) Maths Learning Difficulties, Dyslexia and Dyscalculia. BDA.
Chinn, S. (2017) Dyscalculia and other D’s. SpLD Central Conference.
Dfes (2001) The National Numeracy Strategy. Guidance to support learners with dyslexia and dyscalculia. London. DfES 0512/2001
Dowker, A, Sarkar, A., Looi, Chung Yen (2016) Mathematics Anxiety: What have we learned in 60 years? Frontiers in Psychology, vol 7.
Dreger, R.M. and Aiken, L.R. (1957) The identification of number anxiety in a college population. Journal of Educational Psychology, vol 48, issue 6.
Hattie, J. (2009) Visible Learning Meta Study: a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. Routledge.
Haylock, H. and Cockburn, A. (2013) Understanding Mathematics for Young Children. London: Sage.
Phillips, S., Kelly, K and Symes, L. (2013) Assessment of Learners with Dyslexic-Type Difficulties. London: Sage.
Liebert, R. M., and Morris, L. W. (1967). Cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety: a distinction and some initial data. Psychol. Rep. 20, 975–978.
Landerl, K. (2015) How Specific is the Specific Disorder of Arithmetic Skills? In Chinn, S. International Handbook for dyscalculia and Mathematical Learning Difficulties. London and New York. Routledge. (pp115-124).
Ma, X., and Kishor, N. (1997). Assessing the relationship between attitude toward mathematics and achievement in mathematics: a meta-analysis. J. Res. Math. Educ. 28, 26–47.
Miles, T. R. and Miles, E (1992) Dyslexia and Mathematics. London: Routledge
Reid, G. (2016) Dyslexia: A Practitioner’s Handbook. Oxford: Wiley
Richardson, F. C., and Suinn, R. M. (1972). The Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale. J. Couns. Psychol. 19, 551–554.
Roodenrys, S. & Stokes, J. (2001). Serial recall and nonword repetition in reading disabled children. Reading and Writing: an interdisciplinary journal, 14, 379-394.
Rose, J. (2009) Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia and Literacy Difficulties. London: DFCS.
Sharma, Mahesh (2015) http://www.dyscalculia.org/accessibility, accessed 6 October 2015)
Singleton, C.H. (2009) Interventions for Dyslexia. Bracknall: The Dyslexia-Specific Learning Difficulties Trust. http://www.thedyslexia-spldtrust.org.uk
Sutherland, P. (1988) Dyscalculia. Sum cause for concern? Times Educational Supplement, 18 March.
Swanson, H. L. (2006) Working memory and reading disabilities: Both phonological and executive processing deficits are important. In T.P. Alloway & Gathercole, S. E., (Eds). Working memory and neurodevelopmental disorders pp.59-88. Hove: Psychology Press
Wigfield, A., and Meece, J. L. (1988). Math anxiety in elementary and secondary school students. J. Educ. Psychol. 80, 210–216.
Young, C. B., Wu, S. S., and Menon, V. (2012). The neurodevelopmental basis of math anxiety. Psychol. Sci. 23, 492–501.
It’s the time of year when thoughts turn to transition and if you have an effective transition in your school, you’ve probably been thinking about it for a while.
I’m talking here about the move to…BIG SCHOOL.
Pupils with dyslexia often find this even more daunting than your average student.
How to ease transition for them so that they have the best possible chance of success?
Evidence suggests that performance of year 7 pupils can remain static or even decline. What might be the factors involved?
The following might make it difficult for students with SpLD and each profile will be unique but with difficulties in:
Relationships are key to a smooth transition and the ideal situation is where the pupil, parent/carer, original school and receiving school are all working together to support the child.
A detailed One Page Profile ensures that everyone knows key information about the child, provides a positive framework, focuses on moving forward and puts the child at the centre, drawing upon the experise of the young person and their family.
It may help the child to have additional vists with the school, meeting staff and other children who are attending, Hawes even suggests arranging pen pals with other dyslexic children which I think is a nice idea.
Beccie Hawes suggests a ‘buffet’ approach rather than ‘set menu’. The child is changing, the environment is new – emphasis is on flexibilty. Things that worked for the child before may not now. Review and amend provision constantly.
Here are some thoughts from @creativeartJan on helping her school age self:
Useful Youtube links:
Article on metacognition:
Advert for mindmapping, piece on visual thinking.
If you are dyskexic and want to help teachers to help their dyslexic learners, please add to these suggestions, either leave a comment or get in touch!
Back in March I attended the #playmovelearn conference organised by @GMUnder5s @GreaterSport and @Quality4EY. I was working with Reception children at the time and have always been interested in Early Years’ experiences and how they impact on a child’s journey through school. It’s only by understanding child development that we can help children who are far behind to catch up.
I was especially interested in the idea of moving to learn because this is something I am very aware of with the children I support, regardless of age. They generally need to move to attend and to learn; if the movement is connected to learning e.g. walking around a letter ‘b’, then it’s even better!
Dr Lala Manners
In her key note, Dr Manners had us all up and moving! She then spoke eloquently about the worrying issue of childhood obesity and questioned the current framework for EYFS, including the definitions of ‘exceeding’.
‘we know DfE have recently asked for a thorough review – at least let us give teachers/practitioners criteria that are purposeful and relevant – that support the physical skills linked to ‘school-readiness’ – balance, strength, co ordination, agility – that properly informs children’s overall health and wellbeing and that gives professionals some incentive to engage more proactively with this ‘prime area.’
Physical Prowess is exceedingly important to children:
‘If you really want to know what physical skills mean to young children ask them the following three questions – what are you good at – what are your friends good at – what are you not so good at? (Running/jumping/hiding – sitting still/concentrating/doing my work/tidying up).’
You don’t have to be a wood school, beach school or have the best environment – make the most of what you have and observe your children closely:
‘Spend as much time as possible observing them as they move around your setting – inside and outside. Where do they gravitate to – and why? Who do they choose to be with – and why? What materials do they like to play with – and why? How much adult engagement do they like or allow?’
She closed in talking about how schools might harness both performance and inclusivity; at present, the two seem to be in conflict. She suggested that this be achieved through:
‘a leadership team committed to a shared vision of inclusion to which they get staff, parents and pupils to buy in.’
Furhermore, a committment to mixed-ability groupings and extra planning time for teachers, access to performance data and research to inform decisions are all essential in providing an inclusive setting with achievement for all. Inclusion and achievement are both possible, not one at the expense of the other.
Trish Maude spoke at the event to raise the profile of the IPLS:
The International Physical Literacy Association (IPLA) is constituted as a registered charitable incorporated organisation (CIO) with the Charity Commission UK that aims to promote the profile, and preserve the integrity of physical literacy, engaging with and sharing research worldwide.
The current definition is as follows:
“Physical literacy can be described as the motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge and understanding to value and take responsibility for engagement in physical activities for life,”
It is imperative that we acknowledge the importance of physical wellbeing and links to mental health and learning. Children typically experience the world through their bodies/senses and not their minds. How do we integrate the two?
Dr Lala Manners – Bag of ideas.
This workshop centred around a paper bag and its multitude of uses! The bag was he kind you might find in a sweetshop. We did so many activities that I can’t remember them all.
The workshop showed that you don’t have to be limited by resources, only your imagination. The more open-ended a resource, the more uses it can have!
Sheron Kantor – Journey to Mark Making.
Sheron talked about the vestibular (balance) and proproceptive senses (where the body is in space), both so important in the classroom – especially for handwriting. What I was particularly excited about, was the idea of active phonics, as I’ve so often seen children sitting passively on the carpet whilst phonics is being delivered.
Motor Pathway (Tameside Children’s Centre)
The focus was a move and play project which is delivered to four areas in Tameside in a bid to improve fine and gross motor skills in pre-school children. I did not attend this session but was very interested in it as I believe earlt intervention and support leads to the most positive outcomes!
Why did the project come about?
Who is chosen?
Elaine Wyllie – Daily Mile.
I loved the way the “Daily Mile’ began: by looking at the issue – lack of fitness and using the resources the school had – a field. This echoed Dr Lala Manners’ earlier message, that schools should be looking to the environments they have and utlising them.
As a family, we started a weekly run a few months ago. I have one very active child and a sleepy one! The active child has learnt how to better pace himself, the younger one has learnt to be resilient, not to focus on the discomfort and not to give up. He has noticed his improvements as the weeks have passed.
The Daily Mile is fully inclusive, children all across school access it and do so at their own pace and level. It has led to improvements in health, well being and behaviour. Research on the benefits is due out soon, watch this space!
Stacy Copeland raised awareness around gender equality duing her talk, which began by referencing Kathrine Switzer, the first woman to run in a marathon (illegally).
What overt and implicit messages do we give boys and girls about what is possible and how might we limit their horizons? An inspiring and moving talk about gender, ambition and achieving your goals.
What an amazing end to the day!
I was lucky enough to win access to Kathy Brodie’s Early Years Spring summit video recordings and transcripts at the #playmovelearn conference in Manchester.
I spent most of my childhood outdoors and know it taught me resilience, to be adaptable and to appreciate nature.
I’ve learnt so much from reading the transcripts and below are my main takeaways:
Michael Follet (OPAL)
“Play is the way that we learn everything that can’t be taught – and most things that we know can’t be taught”.
If you are concerned about Health and Safety in the playground, the Health and Safety Executive has a great site called MythBusters, the busters panel look at questions and say “hey guys, be sensible. We really want children to play, we really want them to have challenge… We’re not the crushers of childhood that people think” – Health and Safety is there to support risk taking.
Follet talks about 4 elements: place – playgrounds should provide social opportunities, journey – children should be able to move freely, richness and difference (affordance) and changeability.
‘scale is really, really important. Especially with schools and large settings. One of the things we talk about is the concept of generosity. Don’t put 10 tyres in, put 100 tyres in. Don’t get five bags of sand from the play store, go to the builder’s merchants and get five tonnes or 50 tonnes’.
The play cue is a verbal or physical invitation for the adults to say ‘you can join my world’. It might be to get something that I need – another tyre, I need another paintbrush, I’ve run out of mud. It might be – Come and look at my birthday cake that I made out of leaves. It might be – sit in my car I’ve built. Quite often that invitation is brief. It’s come and look at my thing, come and sit in my den. Now go away. I don’t want you here anymore.
Follett: Jan would probably be able to tell me why they do it. Jan White is very good at it the connection between inner ear development and balance, another name for it that proprioception, vestibular. And I think there is probably something developmental about girls because it’s absolutely universal. Everywhere I go girls are hanging upside down.
So the US Play Coalition is people coming from across the world, mainly from the States. There are people from about 70 countries coming together to talk about the importance of play and about the child’s right to play under the U.N. Convention of the Rights of the Child. Article 41 says that it’s a Human Right that children should be allowed to play.
‘I am really interested in saying ‘where’s the maths in the children’s play’.
So, for example, if you’ve got children and you’re at a play park and there’s the see saw – that’s a giant weighing scale isn’t it? And there’s nothing more exciting than trying to work out can you as a three-year-old lift your mum or dad?
We’re actually focusing on the sandpit as a micro context for improving the nursery outdoor space, because it’s a big area and we’re actually focusing very specifically on maths in the sandpits. This is partly to demonstrate how there is learning in everything. It’s partly to demonstrate how you can build up the routines, the resources, the learning responsibilities of the adult, the rights of the child and how to reimagine that space so that it is utterly brilliant.
Dr Sue Elliot
So now in Australia and elsewhere in the world we’ve moved towards natural playgrounds, that are not dominated by manufactured equipment but they’re dominated by natural elements. Most significantly that’s usually planting but it can also be elements of soil and sand and water and logs and rocks all sorts of things that can dominate.
We need to provide those risky situations for children – not hazards – but we want risks so that children can learn in those natural play spaces about managing risk, whether that’s balancing on a log or it’s clambering over a boulder or something like that crossing a trickle stream. There are lots of opportunities for children to test themselves out and to see what they’re capable of.
I think also in natural play spaces we often talk about also the provocation for language because in a natural play space, because of that changeability of a natural play space, whether it might be the rain puddle or the autumn leaves or it might be a bug that’s found somewhere. They provide provocations for language more so than if you have just a very sterile type of landscape.
I guess something else I’d add about the natural play spaces that we found through our research with the forest pre-school or Bush kinder in Australia was that in the natural spaces there was a calming or a slowing down of the pace which led to much more sustained conversations between adults and children.
Julie Ann White
We firmly believe that being outside in the winter develops resilience. It helps them to think about ways in which to keep themselves warm, through physical stuff. We have little things to keep them warm, hot water bottles and stuff, hand warmers, feet warmers. Lots of things that just keep pushing them and pushing them and they do – they last outside all day, its great.
We started to unpick it and take it right back to the bottom of those three things and think what is it that we can do for these children? Is it a tactile need? Is it a vestibular, where they need to rock backwards and forwards or up and down, that kind of motion? Proprioception, where they need to be feeling their muscles in their body to send those messages to the brain. Do they need to be climbing, jumping, running, that kind of things. We noticed a massive difference with these children.
We explored all the visual distractions that go on within indoors settings, the lighting, all the displays and the noise that happens – which you don’t get in an outdoor setting. So for children who may be on the autistic spectrum that’s always to be a trigger and they’re always going to be a little bit more stressed. So that’s likely to impact on their behaviour.
It’s a Japanese study that sent people out into the forest with monitors. And what they were able to conclude at the end of the study was that being in woodland spaces, forest spaces or outdoors, reduced cortisol levels by 40 percent. So if we’re reducing cortisol levels, you’re a lot less stressed, a lot more relaxed and things like that. I feel that’s why I feel better when I’m outside, that’s why my staff feel better.
We’ve been looking at the difference between interacting and interfering as well. Sometimes our best moments come from standing back and just observing the children in what they’re doing.
Dr Ruby Scarlet
Currently the creative director of Multiverse – an organization devoted to creating professional development and resourcing for early childhood.
So what are the ways, what’s the stuff, what are the methods, what are the inspirations what are the wacky ideas, what are the outrageous thoughts, what are the things that drive us from within to want to express ourselves creatively? And then what kinds of arts practice enables us to do that?
So for example it might be that you have a story inside of you that’s bursting but you don’t see that story in words. You see that story in images. So then I will go ask her what kind of Arts practice will enable you to express that piece of art inside of you?
You walk outside and suddenly you’ve got a whole universe opens up to you in a whole different way. Children will notice things like notice that mole on your nose! That’s what tells me that they will be able to definitely go into an outdoor space and notice.
So you experience narratives, you experience the way that language works and that imagery is conjured in your head, how you respond and how you feel about something you experience that differently outside under the tree to how you might inside.
So the knock on effect of being able to notice something then turns into another event. And that’s where if educators allow themselves to have that noticing moment, to be completely surrendered to that moment of wonder what they see. What they notice. What’s possible.
I think that if we approach our Arts practice outdoors by those things first because of course you can then turn it into ‘let’s go and get the paints’ and ‘let’s mix the colours’ that we can say – you can do it. So you’re outside and you start to mix what does what do today’s colours look like?
It’s really important that we do recognise the significance of child initiated play, which is when children really demonstrate their own choice and their own interests about what they want to do. So when they go into a play space they actually can have that freedom of choice to show what they want to do and how they want to play with something. They’re not directed by adults.
I think the most significant thing about outdoor play is the fact that you have such a flexible environment. It’s an environment where there are no preplanned outcomes, there’s nothing there that is definite that you have to do in a certain way with that environment.
I think perhaps in an outdoor environment where there is more space, there’s also the space in terms of the physical space but there’s also space in terms of that ability to allow children to really just take some more time to work things out. Whereas I don’t know whether it is the indoor environment that sometimes restricts that or practitioners feel a little bit more pressured to achieve something. Whereas in an outdoor space there is kind of a sense of freedom, as well as the actual freedom, of the children.
“Oh they’re just playing” – they’re not ‘just’ playing. There’s so much going on in such the simplest of situations and the smallest of interactions. There’s so much happening in those but it is just about being able to recognise that, being able to see those relationships that are building and also what’s happening that learning that’s happening within those situations.
The message: follow the child’s lead, don’t have a pre-planned outcome, be flexible
All the setting might need is a mud patch or an area of ground that they can access or even just get a couple of bags of soil in – not compost but soil – and then that’s it, the kids can go for it.
I think the key thing, for enabling outdoor play, would be the outdoor clothing. Because the outdoor clothing is what allows them to go outside when it’s raining, to access any outdoor space or if they’re going off site. Good quality and also if you have a limited budget or you need to think carefully about where your budge is going, then I would say spend the money on the trousers, because that’s the thing that the children wear all the time.
A ball of string is a great resource to have because you can tie sticks together, so stick men, swords. You can tie a little stick on the end of your string – lots of these activities are on the Hub – thread leaves onto it. Create a little needle, then it creates a lovely mobile, leaf mobile. So to go in autumn where you’ve got all the beautiful coloured leaves falling off trees. And you have a little piece of string, metre length string, tie one stick on the end and a little stick on the other end as a needle.
We run a campaign which is Mud campaign so on the 29th of June she is international Mud day and in the run up to the 29th June we put out ideas and different resources to support people getting involved in international Mud day, which has been part of our Mud campaign, getting people involved in Mud kitchens.
Balanced and Barefoot: unrestricted outdoor play makes for strong confident and capable children’ was published in 2016 and it discusses the effects of restricted movements and lack of outdoor playtime on overall sensory and motor development in children.
An example might be listening to the story ‘The three little Pigs’ and then building an actual house out of real bricks sticks and hay bales of hay in the woods. Their own design and then reenacting the story so they’re getting pre-literacy and they’re living and breathing the story they’re moving their bodies they’re engaging their senses. It’s working on higher levels skills – thinking problem solving and then some of the neurological skills and making connections in the brain.
Children’s neurological system is designed to seek out the sensory input it needs when it’s ready for that input. So if they need to spin in circles, then there’s a very good reason for that. They’re really trying to organize their brain. So we see a child spinning and say “don’t do that. You’re going to get dizzy”, we’re becoming the barrier to child development and they’re just trying to make connections in their brains. So we really need to step back and allow them to do some of those things.
Step back, but tune in – to be there and intervene only when you need to. And that kids need a big – almost like a play bubble. And when you step in that bubble, that magic bursts. So really to give them a big space where they have that freedom to feel like they’re on their own.
A tyre can be used maybe 50 different ways by one child and another child might have 50 other different ways. And so when you combine loose parts with other children they start getting all these different ideas and their creativity and their inspiration grows. And that’s how you see some more independent creative play.
During free play I feel to just wait a second. Give yourself – because your instinct right away is to intervene. But unless they are like they’re physically fighting, then get right in there, don’t wait for that one. But if it’s like arguing or having an argument, there’s no need for the adult to step in right away. Just see what happens you know. But if it gets physical obviously or they’re upset get in there.
‘The Early Years is where it happens. If we get it wrong in the Early Years, that foundation is going to be very rocky’.
The Open Air ethos was actually akin to the circumstances we find ourselves now in that children were indoors a lot. They were overprotected slightly, they couldn’t put their coats on.
I always hear the words visits and trips and feel myself grimace slightly because they’re almost lightweight words. To take children out into the community into the world around them, requires a great deal of courage and preparation on the behalf of the practitioner. It also requires trust on the part of the parent to let that practitioner take children out. I think sometimes that gets forgotten.
You’re not only building contacts and learning for the children, you’re also building a sort of hyphae, fungal hyphae, out into the community of people that know your setting. The quality of what you’re trying to do and your interlinking in another way, the children into their community and people also valuing young children, which sadly they don’t always in our society.
This is a privilege that Tina Bruce has given to some of us to train with her to be able to explain Froebel’s philosophy and practice from the ‘Gifts and Occupations’ to his beliefs on nature and working with parents and so on.
Nature plus Nurture plus Play equals Resilience.
The NatureNurture project is an early intervention project. We are working with vulnerable children using play in nature with carefully attuned adult support and so there’s lots and lots and lots of free play and lots and lots of opportunity to play outside. Our main aim really is that we help children to become more resilient.
I am always inspired by a learning cycle that was produced by a neuroscientist and psychologist called Bruce Perry, trauma expert.
So if you imagine somebody being fearful of a child climbing or fearful of them using a certain tool or fearful for them going too near some water. Of course, you have to keep children safe. But if we let our fear get in the way then the child just adopts the adult fear. They don’t really continue their exploration in that healthy learning way.
‘Nature pedagogy it’s massive. It’s about a philosophy around how we engage with the natural world in real and authentic ways to educate and care for children and youth’.
So for me, the best thing we can do is to say all right if I’m a child and a stick is a good thing in forest school then why isn’t a stick a good thing in the outdoor play area and why isn’t a stick a brilliant thing to have inside my classroom? I suppose to give children a real sense of consistency and understanding that pedagogically we believe in what people are now calling loose parts, this work around the play affordance – Gibson and Nicholson have done a lot for us in those two research papers. Taking those elements and really understanding what they mean pedagogically, I think is a real way to help children.
Often we get caught up in having to do documentation for external agencies or for quality assurance or things like that. But actually I think sometimes having both reflective and reflexive practice in your work as an adult allows us just to take a moment and say “Actually my journey is going in a different direction to my colleague but I personally am growing and am developing and I’m changing my ideas or affirming my ideas”.
So what have I seen that I would bring back? Probably those three things to hold onto – relationships, to the enthusiasm that we have and to remember how confident these young children really are engaged with all aspects – but especially within the natural world.
I think at the beginning puddle play is just all about fun. When we’re having fun means that we can do some good learning. It’s all about Frere Laevers Wellbeing idea and I think that underpins a huge amount of what we can do with children around puddles, the mud outdoors and indoors.
I think it’s a really rich place for maths learning. Right back at the beginning you said that I began my professional career as a physics teacher. Maths and science learning for me in the mud kitchen is enormous. It is everywhere in the setting but when you start to look the mud kitchen, it is very easy to identify, it is very easy to see children who are filling containers, part filling containers and then finding they’ve got an empty container once they’ve tipped all of the contents out.
Twitter: @Quackersplay my own one is @Forestbeing
Think about resources combined, so resources aren’t silos – it’s wheely toys today and it’s construction tomorrow and it’s messy play the next day. Combine them, use them in different ways so really really exploit what you already have.
Just to think about making the most of the space you have got. And the other one is getting out and about. What we commonly do is we think about the floor plane. Children are smaller than we are, they feel closer to the ground, so we think about what’s on the ground and not necessarily what’s on the walls around us or even above us.
I would say – loose parts and grab and go kits, I think are really handy. One of the things that I love is playing with objects that weren’t made for play. Scavenging I’m terrible – I can’t pass a skip without dipping in it, just to see what’s in there. I’m best friends with the guys down at my local tip.
Children have a Right – to be outdoors and to have their learning offered to them outdoors as well as indoors. But along the way the other side of the coin is how do you actually make all that potential available?
To me, involvement is more focused on bringing the – importantly – on bringing the parents in, having them contribute to the life of the setting, maybe coming in working in the setting for a period of time or helping to do development days like working bees.
But of course the biggest thing is that you’re actually naming it for what it is – you’re unlocking that ‘learning’ Outdoors. It’s not ‘outdoor play’ it is actually ‘Learning’ outdoors.
Young children learn best through hands on experiential learning.
We are actually dis-abling our young children, this generation of young children by disallowing them this authentic nature immersion time.
I took it upon myself to define what my idea of nature immersion was and it is ‘unstructured free time in nature that results in an intimate personal and deep connection with the natural world’. So this idea of unstructured time in nature is critical to the definition of nature immersion.
I really became concerned that if today’s children weren’t being authentically connected with nature in a way that made them love and respect the natural world that they really wouldn’t care later on as adults whether nature was being destroyed because they wouldn’t have built that bond and early attachment that we as humans are programmed to expect at birth.
I believe that compassion is built experientially and our children have many opportunities throughout their forest day to practice compassion, respect, kindness, spatial awareness not only with each other but also with nature. So we call our program ‘compassion scaffolded’ one. And what that means is that every opportunity we get, we encourage the children to think about ‘the other’, think about their friend, think about the nature find that they’ve just discovered. So they’re coached to have a very very gentle touch.
We really felt strongly that it was very important to front load these lessons in compassion and kindness and respect because to us those are more important lessons to really instil in children under age 6 then learning how to read and write and do simple math.
Forthcoming book: Teaching the Cedarsong Way: lessons from an award winning Forest Kindergarten’.
Dates: Outdoor learning day: May 17th
Outdoor Learning Conference: June 11th
Nursery World Show North: May 11/12th